Canada: Penalty Card for Five Substances

The Canadian government has suggested prohibiting the use of the following substances:

  • Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD)
  • Perfluorooctanoic acid PFOA), its salts, and its precursors
  • Long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (LC-PFCAs), their salts, and their precursors
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)
  • Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

Perbrominated substances work as flame retardants. Because of their water-, soil-, and fat-repelling properties, perfluorinated substances are favored for use in textiles, cooking utensils, paper, and other products.
Because they do not decompose in the environment, they accumulate along the food chain over time. In particular, perfluorinate

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